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Welcome to Leck Linux!

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last updated
051717
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contact leck
http://www.lecksite.com/leck.html
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if you're looking for "leck linux" i stopped supporting it. i'm working on artificial intelligence now
http://www.lecksite.com/artificialintelligence.html
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Best free operating system anchor link

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"what is the best free operating system for what i will use my computer for and the best free operating system for my computer's hardware?". finding a balance between these took a lot of effort and time with a surprisingly simple solution. note that these instructions are for desktop and laptop computers only. if you want to install a free operating system on a mobile device, i do not have instructions on my website to do this. you are better off using a non free operating system on a mobile device anyway.
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dos is definitely the fastest and easiest of the free operating systems to install and use, but dos is extremely limited in what it can do. it's also very easy to install dos as your main operating system. i don't suggest using dos though. still i have installed dos as the only operating system myself, and you can see instructions at the bottom of this page if you wish to do dos, as well as more information about what dos can and cannot do.
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1. the first option is windows or mac. if you have one of these installed already, the debate about linux versus the leading operating systems is... if you don't consider yourself computer savy, or you already have windows 10 installed, look no further. you probably want to stay with your operating system, and you can save a lot of time and effort without reading any further. linux can be a headache especially for the non computer expert. linux does run faster than the leading operating systems, but even the best linuxes have slightly more bugs than the leading operating systems generally. linux is much more secure from hacking and viruses though.
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1. if you have the option between linux or a leading non free operating system you need to consider 2 things. first, are all the programs (applications) you want to use available for your operating system? just about every application is made for windows. for mac and linux you want to make sure the most important things you use your computer for are supported, meaning go to the website of each application and see if linux or mac is one of the available operating systems. every operating system is able to browse websites, watch youtube, look at webmail, and even use skype. it's the video games or other application you want to make sure you can use. generally the adobe products do not work on linux, and are not free either for example. most of what adobe makes has free clone versions (totally legal to use).
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2. assuming linux is the operating system you want, there are 3 options in my opinion. i'm oversimplfying this, so please understand if you are a linux expert i am not clarifying a lot of what i'm writing here. your choices in this order are
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1. linux mint (not the debian version)
2. ubuntu
3. debian (whatever the current stable is)
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if you are having trouble installing read this paragraph...
debian will install on all computers and laptops. you need an internet connection WHILE INSTALLING usually to get it to work. this might require you to attach an ethernet cable if the driver for your wireless card is not supported or installed or recognized. if debian does not install on your hardware, linux will not work on your hardware. connection. most wireless card drivers are not included in the installation data (by law), so you pretty much need to hook up an ethernet cable to the computer while installing, or it will not workn (even though i've successfully installed a wireless driver in a few debian versions during install, so it's possible). there are ways to install the wireless driver during or before the operating system, which i will explain below only for debian 8. of course you can use other linuxes like arch or linux from scratch, but this is way beyond what most people want, because those tend to be even harder than the more popular linuxes. most people don't want to spend years just learning how to use linux, which is why i made these instructions. i haven't come across a computer which doesn't work with debian yet. steamos seems to be popular, but not really necessary. it's just a debian respin, and it's better to use debian. it takes all of 10 clicks to install steam on debian. the steamos is a poor version of debian, so you are better off installing debian and then steam manually. if you aren't going to be running intensive programs like games on linux, you really can use any linux. it's better to run one of the top linuxes in case you need the graphic capabilities similar to windows, even if you don't forsee a need for intense graphics right now, it's always better to have the ability to watch netflix and youtube instead of settling for a worse linux which doesn't run those by default. if debian doesn't work, you can only use windows or mac on that hardware. most 10 year old application only designed for windows will work with linux.
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3. you need to check if the graphic's card will work with your linux. the best way to do this is to go to the graphic's card's website. again if it's an old computer you don't really need to do this. even the generic graphics driver should be fine for older computers
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4. download the version of linux you decided upon
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Linux mint
http://www.linuxmint.com/
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ubuntu
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NOTE TO LECK ADD LINKS FOR UBUNTU AND DEBIAN
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Debian
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ADD ANCHOR LINK
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Dos
http://www.lecksite.com/linux.html#dos
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5. burn the .iso installer to a cd or usb.
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linux installers are designed to be burned to cds or dvds and installed to computers that way. unless otherwise noted, assume install isos are for a cd or dvd. cdburnerxp is easy software which works on every version of windows every time to burn bootable images (isos). if you want to use a usb flash drive to boot, or you get an iso designed for a usb, you can use rufususb to burn. rufus works every time on every windows. generally if linux is designed to be installed with a usb, it doesn't download in iso, but it does require you to add an mbr boot sector. rufus does this automatically thank god. adding assembly in operating systems is extremely difficult due to the fact the operating system is programmed in assembly. bootable sectors are programmed in assembly.
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6. install linux. i'm not going to go into detail about this. generally you want to have a connection to the internet via a wire when you install linux. it has the best chance of success to install that way. there is no danger installing nonfree software at all (there is a security risk installing ppas though). i don't really need to explain what to do after linux is installed. if you are installing debian it usually requires additional drivers to be installed manually after you install debian. the other linuxes mentioned here should handle this automatically (steamos probably functions more like debian than mint and ubuntu though).
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7. assuming everything works, you are a linux user! you don't need to input commands in text form like you had to decades ago (this isn't the 1990s). since 2005 linux has been just fine using a mouse and a keyboard without learning linux commands. of course it's nice to know how to know linux commands, but they aren't neccessary nowadays. most people don't know dos even though windows pretty much does everything in dos, and the same is becoming more true with linux as time goes on.
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linux mint
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i'm not sure how many people actually will read this, so i'm writing this section in a way more for myself than others. if it's difficult to understand or incomplete, that is why.
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in mint all you have to do is install samba and file sharing will work
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debian anchor link
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the section in italics is not useful information anymore. i'm keeping it here for my reference.
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THE PROTOCOLS FOR THIS VERSION OF DEBIAN ARE FLAGGED AS 'TOO OLD' BY MOST WEBSITE. USE LINUX MINT OR ANOTHER UPDATED LINUX INSTEAD OF DEBIAN 7. SOME WEBSITES WILL BLACKLIST OLD PROTOCOLS.
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you want to install debian 7 (wheezy) which is the 2nd newest debian currently. i was using the newest debian (debian 8 jezzie) for a while until i realized the makers of debian actually broke some things like the file explorer. debian 7 is the best linux. i will try other linuxes occasionally to see if there is a better linux. here is the official website "https://www.debian.org/" , but debian removed all copies of debian 7 from their website, so i uploaded a version just in case this was intentional. it's helpful to have a version to download easily.
https://www.sendspace.com/file/v1fm2z
and make sure to put it on a cd with http://cdburnerxp.se or a usb drive with "rufus usb" (note to leck, remember to add link to download)
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download this and put it on the "root" of the usb during install (the topmost folder of the usb).
http://cdimage.debian.org/cdimage/unofficial/non-free/firmware/
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the installation of debian is all messed up. (it is even worse in debian 8) installing debian does work, but you need to keep trying different things with usb flash drives and cd roms with the debian image to get it to work. i think what you want to do is install with the "advanced expert" or the "advanced graphical expert", and when it gets to the internet connection, it has to connect to the internet during the install or it will be problematic later. using wifi it just simply fails the first time so attempt to connect to wifi 2x. make sure you put the programs above in basic tarball format or fully extracted format on the root of the flash drive for it to be detected. the programs will not be detected in any kind of complex format like tar.bz .
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i also have programs and drivers i'm too lazy to upload on my hard drive which help after the installation. you can find the same programs on websites anyway. here is the master list of all debian packages for debian 7. https://packages.debian.org/oldstable/allpackages
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enabling file transfer between computers at the same location
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i will keep improving this as i get better at doing it. i update this subsection frequently.
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installing "synaptic" you should install "nautilus-share" and "samba". (maybe smb4k and sambaclient too) and then restart your computer
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use "root terminal" close nautilus (your graphical file explorer) if it's open and input
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put this into your root terminal
gksudo nautilus
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after entering your password find your folder you want to share and right click on it then left click "sharing options" . you want to check 2 "share this folder" and "guest access"
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if that does not work, you can do the following instructions
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navigate to the smb config file here /etc/samba/smb.conf and edit it using gedit. at the very bottom of smb.conf input this and save it. this is an example of how to share the "desktop" folder. of course you can share any folder you want. the folder name and path ARE CASE SENSITIVE, so you need to capitilize desktop for example.
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[Desktop]
path = /home/leck/Desktop
available = yes
read only = yes
browseable = yes
public = yes
comment = desktop
writable = no
guest ok = yes
guest account = ftp
guest only = no
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install samba with synaptic. you should install every samba pertinent package. i have not figured out which packages are essential to fix local file sharing. i think samba4 is the package which creates the correct configuration file, but again i'm not sure, so just keep installing different samba packages until it works, or install them all. after installing samba and restarting your computer, open up a root terminal and type
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gksudo nautilus
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then navigate to the folder you want to share (remember it shares all folders within also), and right click on the folder. left click on sharing options or properties. i suggest never enabling write access, only enabling read access. write access allowed from another computer is a major security risk, because someone can install a virus from another location.
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the rest of this section i'm leaving here, because it's another way to enable file sharing if the above instructions do not work for you. this way is harder and should only be used if the above instructions do not work.
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then in a terminal copy and paste
service samba restart
optionally you can copy and paste this to see if there are any syntax errors in smb.conf
testparm
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you should be able to search in a file explorer and find your shared folder. if you are unable to see the file for whatever reason, you can use a web browser to find the folder.
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if you are using linux you need to have samba installed on both computers. copy and paste this into iceweasel. replace the desktop with the name of your folder you are sharing. replace leck with the name of the computer or ip address of the computer with the shared folder
smb://leck/Desktop
another example smb://leckscomputer/Music/mybest
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if you are using a windows computer, open up firefox or internet explorer and paste something like this. replace LECK with your computer name or ip address, and replace Desktop with the folder you are sharing.
\\LECK\Desktop
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automatic password input and program launch
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NOT FINISHED TIHS YET
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i think you have to install
xsel
xclip
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command to copy to clipboard is
echo "hello" | xclip -selection clipboard
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you can make a bootable usb with "rufus usb" but it does not work with some computers. some computers require you to use a cd to install debian. i suggest do not "create a root account" let your user account be the root account. it saves you from trouble later.
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a black screen like a dos prompt after you installed means you didn't install with an internet connection. you need to reinstall and have an interenet connection during install or it will take more time trying to fix debian than if you simply reinstall debian.
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root terminal is installed by default. there is no reason to use the normal terminal unless there is a program specifically designed not to work with root terminal (which happens occasionally) if you use normal terminal put "su" to login as root
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using "root terminal" to update software
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(input password when you are asked for your password)
apt-get update
apt-get upgrade
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synaptic is installed by default. you should install all of these programs from synaptic. (if synaptic is not installed use "apt-get install synaptic" to install synpatic in root terminal)
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you can use synaptic package manager to install most programs, drivers, and libraries. if something isn't in a repository or has a dependancy problem, then you need to add the repository to /usr/etc/sources.list by opening up a terminal and typing "gksudo nautilux" you can alternatively download a program from the official debian list of packages here (THIS IS TE https://packages.debian.org/oldstable/allpackages )
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to run mass storage hard drives formatted in windows
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run disk manager and right click on the correct external media which does not mount. left click "check" and after it finishes, you can mount the external mass storage drive or flash drive.
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to install skype
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using "terminal" copy and paste or retype the lines below
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su leck ("leck" is your username)
(input password when you are asked for your password)
apt-get install libxss1
cd /tmp
wget -O skype-install.deb http://www.skype.com/go/getskype-linux-deb
dpkg -i skype-install.deb
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to install new programs
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use synaptic. if synaptic does not work follow these instructions
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if the package isn't in the default repositories, you can add the repo, but i find it easier to download the package and install it with dpkg -i like this THIS MIGHT NOT WORK IN JESSIE
dpkg -i /home/leck/Downloads/myprogram.deb
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if a package isn't in .deb you need to do this to change it to .deb
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install "alien" with synaptic
close synaptic and in root terminal copy and paste below
alien "package path and name without quotes"
example alien /home/fedoraprogram.fed
look in your "\home" folder for the .deb package
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to install a .deb package
dpkg -i "package path and name without quotes"
example dpkg -i /home/fedoraprogram.deb
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sometimes you need recursion to download a package or you need to compile with the instructions included within the package you downloaded. i am not going to explain how to do this, because it is way too complicated to explain. most software you need to compile manually comes with instructions. you need to use recursion if the person who made the application does not package it.
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to install a fully working audio and video player
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install vlc. i suggest uninstalling all other media players so debian doesn't get confused. you can use synaptic to uninstall.
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to take a screenshot
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move your mouse to the top left of the screen and left click on application. left click on the application named "screenshot"
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less important programs to install
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using synaptic install audacity
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this program is the best disk memory formater (which means erasing mass storage and flash disks). it does other less important things along the same lines too. it cannot format your master hard drive running debian, so make sure you don't format C: with gparted, because gparted will try and get interrupted when debian crashes and corrupts at the same time 8) gparted should transfer your current os to ram in order to format the master hard drive, which is something i will include in leck linux, but gparted cannot do currently.
using synaptic install gparted
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moving your mouse to the top left of the screen shows 2 tabs (windows and applications). if you move to applications, "system settings" and "advanced system settings" are everything you need to customize your graphical user interface of debian gnome.
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a simple picture editor like mspaint is pinta. use synaptic to install pinta. (pinta is the linux version of the windows paint.net)

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to uninstall software use synaptic. you should be able to use autoremove but i haven't figured out how to install or use autoremove yet

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DOS anchor link
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dos is the best and most popular text only operating system. almost every computer made from 1990-2010 has dos as the "parent" operating system (after 2010, computers and mobile devices use proprietary text based oses or C in the boot process instead of dos). probably the best use for dos is the ability to format hard drives in any way (wipe hard drives and set them up). windows usually does not let you do this except in the "windows" file format (ntfs) unless you download additional software. dos seems to avoid a lot of the other problems with formatting hard drives and flash drives too.
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dos is not owned by microsoft anymore. if you use dos you will have virtually your entire computer's speed. dos is really only useful if your computer is too slow to use debian/mint, or you are unable to install any other operating system. you will not be able to use over 90% of the programs made for windows and you cannot browse the internet using a web browser (you can't use google but you can use the internet in other ways). initially dos can only use a keyboard. you only have about 100 commands initially with dos. running dos as your main operating system would only be good for a few purposes. you can connect to the internet using dos, but it would be easier just to use linux. see below for instructions to install dos. (yes you need to "install" dos as your operating system unless you are using a very old computer)
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to install the ms dos operating system as your only operating system you will want to download a full installer from the link below. to just try dos you can use a windows vista/7 or xp installation cd. for a vista/7 cd, press shift+F10 as soon as it loads. for windows xp, there are a number of different ways to access dos, the easiest being a full install of windows xp, and use a command prompt after you start up the operating system. the link to download a full installer of ms dos is: (you'll need to burn the iso to a cd or make a boot usb) http://www.syschat.com/download60.html&act=down (latest version 7.1)
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to install a dos emulator (dosbox is the preferred way to run dos) you can download it from the application link on my download page here: (or a current version from the dosbox website) http://www.lecksitegd1.com/
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old videos and administrative links
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Leck Linux is on distrohub now
http://distrohunt.org/
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Leck Linux is on the waiting list to be added to distrowatch (yay!)
http://distrowatch.com/dwres.php?resource=submit
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i frequent one of the most reputable linux communities http://www.cupoflinux.com/SBB/index.php
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this link is here for my administrative reference
(http://www.lecksite.com/source.html)
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you can watch youtube videos where i talk about leck linux.
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060615 - 8 minutes long
http://youtu.be/sUTqesjIEpQ
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052315 - 2 minutes long
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=82eVZi9qA84&t=32m45s
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